Reflecting on ...


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Moving on

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Levels of reflection

Are there different levels of reflection?
Roffey-Barentson and Malthouse (2009) introduce four ‘levels of reflective writing’ (pp 84-5). We have adapted them into a simplfied idea of three levels of reflection below:

Descriptive reflection
A starting point with some reasons or justifications for an event which has happened but which remains a description of or report on that event.

Dialogic Reflection
Stepping back from the description of the event itself to include possible reasons for why things happened and how they contributed to the event.

Critical reflection
Taking a more evaluative position where the event is considered from a range of perspectives or viewpoints and these are all used to help understand what happened and why it happened

Don Clark, in his excellent website, Performance, Learning, Leadership, & Knowledge, includes this piece on levels of reflection.

Surbeck, Han, and Moyer (1991) identified three levels of reflection:
  1. Reacting - commenting on feelings towards the learning experience, such as reacting with a personal concern about an event.
  2. Elaborating - comparing reactions with other experiences, such as referring to a general principle, a theory, or a moral or philosophical position.
  3. Contemplating - focusing on constructive personal insights or on problems or difficulties, such as focusing on education issues, training methods, future goals, attitudes, ethical matters, or moral concerns. The nature of the stimulus or directions initially provided to the learners, as well as the feedback they receive after the initial reflection, will determine the extent to which they reach the contemplation level of reflection.
Source:
Surbek, E., Eunhye, P., & Moyer, J. (1991). Assessing reflective responses in journals. Education Leadership, March, 25-27.
Featured at:
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/development/reflection.html


Activity for download


Levels of reflection activity - download
An activity to use the idea of levels of reflection when considering event and activities which have taken place in a teaching situation
Levels of reflection resource - download


Other relevant content on this topic

Levels of Reflection at the Professional Development for Academics in Teaching (ProDAIT)
http://www.prodait.org/teaching/critical_teaching/levels.php
Peter Pappas on a taxonomy of reflection at this link
Four levels of reflection at the e-portfolios for Northern Ireland Website at:
http://tepni.com/resources/reflective-practice.html


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national star college

Videos from National Star College

These videos are a specially commissioned part of this project, and have been produced by National Star College. They can be used as a freestanding resource, or in conjunction with other resources and activities on this website.
TO PLAY ANY VIDEO, CLICK ON THE 'PLAY' BUTTON ON SCREEN.
TO PLAY FULL SCREEN, CLICK ON THE IMAGE FOR THE VIDEO AND YOU CAN THEN PLAY FULL SCREEN AT YOU TUBE.


Learning from a teaching observation
A teacher in a residential specialist college who is teaching students with disabilities reflects on her
teaching. A tutor who has been observing her
supports her reflection.

Reflecting on a tutorial
Police trainees are shown in a training session
which includes an assessed practical activity.
One trainee discusses the nature of a tutorial,
and how it supports reflective practice.

Reflective Practice - keeping a reflective journal
A teacher working in a a specilist college for
learners with learning and behavioural difficulties
reflects on her practice. The tutor discusses self
reflection and a reflective journal with the teacher.

Reflective Practice - feedback from peers and learners
Teachers from a community learning context reflect on their teaching practice using peer and learner feedback. Peer to peer discussions illustrate the benefits of reflecting on your teaching with another teacher.

Teaching sessions


Star College videos above

'Get it on video' activity - download
Simple activity to promote reflection using video. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial.
'What a picture' activity - download

Simple activity to promote reflection using digital photos. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial.
Observing another teacher activity -
downloadAn activity to arrange another teacher and reflect on their teaching, then use that reflection for learning relating to your teaching.
Observing another teacher resource - download

Teaching observations


Star College videos above


'Get it on video' activity - download
Simple activity to promote reflection using video. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial.
Observing another teacher activity -
download
An activity to arrange another teacher and reflect on their teaching, then use that reflection for learning relating to your teaching.

Observing another teacher resource - download
Subject specific observation activity - download'
An activity to help focus on what the specialist parts of a teaching session actually are.
Subject specific observation resource- download
What a picture' activity - download

Simple activity to promote reflection using digital photos. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial.

Tutorials


Star College videos above


'Get it on video' activity -
download here
Simple activity to promote reflection using video. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial.

Listening skills activity - download
Listening skills resource - download

Simple activity for developing and practicing listening skills
SMART Targets activity - download
SMART Targets resource - download

A good activity and set of cards, adapted from the Skills for Life Improvement programme, for working on target setting with students.

'What a picture' activity - download here
Simple activity to promote reflection using digital photos. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial.

Interviews


Star College videos above


'Get it on video' activity - download here
Simple activity to promote reflection using video. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial.
'What a picture' activity - download here

Simple activity to promote reflection using digital photos. You can use this activity as a part of a tutorial, so that the 'plenary' becomes the tutorial

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